Semester Offering: January

There is a need to understand the current policies and practices on community focused work by the governments, non-profits and the business. It is also very important to understand the status of the disadvantaged communities like minorities, orphans, indigenous people etc. This course aims at discussing the current debates on community focused development and ways to improve the lives of the marginalised.


On completion of the course students would  be able to:

  • Explain the current debate on community organisations, the issues and tools related to community participation and empowerment.
  • Analyse the policy options for targeting and working with the marginalised communities.
  • Critically assess the policies and tools for working with the communities    




I.         Community and development planning
1.    The idea of community
2.    The importance of working with the community
3.    The new importance of community development planning
II.        Organizations for community development
1.    Introduction to various types of community organisations. .
2.    Institutional framework and principles for community organizations
3.    Organizational dynamics
4.    Inter-organizational relations and local governments
III.       Approaches and strategies for participation and community development
1.    Factors influencing participation
2.    Asset-based, Need-based and actor-oriented approaches
3.    The Idea of Social capital
IV.      Community empowerment for development
1.    The notion: ambiguity and diversity
2.    Impediments to empowerment
3.    The indicators of Empowerment
V.       Methods and Techniques of Community Development
1.    The participatory techniques: RRA and PRA
2.    Stakeholder analysis
3.    Strategic planning
4.    Project cycle management
5.    SWOT analysis
6.    Logical framework
7.    Landuse planning
VI.      Community Development for the excluded
1.    The minorities (ethnic, religious)
2.    The Indigenous/tribal people
3.    The disabled/physically handicapped
4.    The refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and prisoners
5.    The slum dwellers
6.    Children, orphans and the aged
VII.     Community development: Lessons from case studies
1.    Community development and planning in Developing Asia: Lessons and Experiences
2.    Case studies: Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand etc.




1.     Philips, R. and Pittman, R. H. (2015). An Introduction to Community Development. New York: Routledge.
2.     Craig, G, Mayo, M. Popple, K. Shaw, M. and Taylor, M. (edt.).(2011) The Community Development Reader – History, Themes and Issues. Bristol: The Policy Press. 


1.     Bamford, T. (2015).A Contemporary History of Social Work Learning from the Past. Bristol: Policy Press.
2.     Luttrell, C., Quiroz, S. with Scrutton, C and Bird, K. (2009). Understanding and operationalising empowerment. ODI Working Paper 308. London: ODI.  


There are many good journals available in the AIT library (both hard copies and online) however the top journals are:

  1.    Community Development Journal (Oxford)
  2.    World Development (Elsevier)
  3.    Development and Change (Wiley)
  4.    Development in Practice (Taylor and Francis)


Lectures (45 hours), self-study 135 hours. Students also need to work for about 10 hours for one assignment.


The teaching and learning methods followed in the course are: lectures, discussions, review of recent publications which include journal articles. It also includes a group presentation.


Mid-semester exam 30%, assignments and presentation 30% and final exam 40%. Both exams will be open book. In the examination, an “A” would be awarded if a student can elaborate the knowledge learned in class by giving his/her own analysis on the issues discussed, from journals, books and other sources. A “B” would be awarded if a student an overall understanding of all topics, a “C” would be given if a student meets below average expectation on both knowledge acquired and analysis. A “D” would be given if a student does not meet the basic expectations in understanding and analyzing the topics and issues presented in the course.