Semester Offering: January

To provide the student with knowledge of both the theoretical and practical dimensions of Pleisiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and related techniques, as well as an understanding of advantages and disadvantages of bit-interleaving and byte-interleaving for time division multiplexing.


Analog Signals and Digital Transmission, Pleisiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), Noise,Bit Errors, and Synchronization, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Optical Fiber Networks for SDH.




1. Network Hierarchy in Circuit-Switched Networks
2. Non-Circuit-Switched Networks
3. Transmission Methods: an Overview
4. Advantages of Digital Voice and Video Networks
5. The Concept of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
6. Natural Sampling, Ideal Sampling, and the Nyquist Criterion
7. “Instantaneous” (Sample-and-Hold) Sampling and Aperture Distortion
8. Practical Reconstruction and the Incurred Distortion
9. Degradation due to Aliasing and the Need for Bandwidth-Limiting the Input Signal

1. Uniform Quantization of Samples and Quantization Noise
2. Received Power Spectral Density of Quantization Noise
3. The Effect of Receiver Noise
4. Non-Uniform Quantization: the A and m Laws for Logarithmic Quantization
5. Quantization Noise for Non-Uniform Quantization
6. Degradations: Peak Clipping, Empty Channel Noise, and Hum Harmonics
7. Some Other Quantization Methods
8. The PCM30 Hierarchy, Frame-Alignment, and the Concept of the Multiframe
9. Rate Justification for Bit-Interleaved Higher-Order Hierarchies

1. Dependence of the Bit-Error Rate (BER) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio
2. Eye Diagrams for Fast Estimation of BER, Noise Margins, and Timing Margins
3. Synchronization Based on the Incoming Signal
4. Clock Extraction using Tank Circuits and Phase-Lock Loops (PLL)
5. Line Codes for Reliable Clock Extraction
6. The Complementary High-Density Binary 3 (HDB3) Line Code
7. Scrambling and Descrambling for Line Coding

IV Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

1. SDH Bit Rates and Interfaces
2. Structure of SDH Frames
3. Synchronous Multiplexing Process
3.1. Rate Adaptation
4. Multiplexing of 2 Mbit/s Signals into a STM-1 Frame
4.1. Asynchronous, Byte and Bit synchronous Mapping of a 2 Mbit/s Signal into VC-12
4.2. Aligning of VC-12 into TU-12 using the TU-12 Pointer
4.3. Multiplexing of TU-12 into an STM-1 Frame
5. SDH Network Configurations

V Optical Fibers for SDH

1. Definitions and Principles of Operation
2. Fabrication Methods
3. Attenuation and Dispersion Characteristics
4. Examples of Cable Designs

VI SDH Transmission over Optical Fibers

1. Scrambling and Descrambling for SDH
2. Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection
3. Node-to-Node Link Design and the Power Budget
4. Repeater Spacing and Trade-offs: Bandwidth, Speed, Transmitted Power, and Loss
5. Transmitter Design
6. Receiver Design
7. Designing a Fiber Link


1. Handling, Splicing, and Connection of Optical Fibers
2. Sampling Circuits and Evaluation of Degradations
3. Delta Modulation
4. Generation of Eye Patterns
5. Performance Characteristics of a PDH Terminal and Channel
6. Characteristics of an SDH Network (Synfonet)


Lecture Notes and Handouts


B.G. Lee, W.Kim, W.-J. Kim:
Integrated Broadband Networks: TCP/IP, ATM, SDH/SONET, and WDM/Optics, Artech House, 2002, 605 pp
W.J. Goralski:
Sonet/SDH Third Edition, McGraw Hill Text; 3rd Edition, 2002, 704 pp.
A.B.Carlson, P.B.Crilly, J.C.Rutledge:
Communication Systems, McGraw-Hill, 4th Edition, 2002, 850 pp.
Understanding Sonet/SDH and ATM, IEEE Press, 1999, 257pp.
G. Held:
High Speed Digital Transmission Networking : Covering T/E-Carrier Multiplexing, SONET and SDH, John Wiley & Son Ltd, 2nd Edition, 1999, 260 pp.
R. Kiefer, (J.Nutley, translator):
Test Solutions for Digital Networks: Basic Principles & Measurement Techniques for Pdh, Sdh, Isdn & ATM, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999, 282, pp.
M. Sexton, et al:
Broadband Networking: ATM, SDH, and SONET, Artech House, 1997, 589 pp.
K.I. Sato:
Advances in Transport Network Technologies: Photonic Networks, ATM, and SDH, Artech House, 1996, 220 pp.
C.A. Siller Jr., M. Shafi:
SONET/SDH: A Sourcebook of Synchronous Networking, IEEE Press, 1996.
M.C. Chow:
Understanding Sonet/SDH: Standards & Applications, Andan Publishers,1995,504 pp.
B.G. Lee, M. Kang, J. Lee:
Broadband Telecommunications Technology, Artech House Inc., 1993.




The final grade will be computed from the following components: midsem exam (30%), final exam (50%), and laboratories (20%).
Closed-book examination is normally used in both midsem exam and final exam