Semester Offering: January

The course aims at providing basic photogrammetry concept, procedure, processing task and its result through project work. Error analysis is also considered and explained with various methods. Students will be trained through the software given in the lab.


Photogrammetry, Digital Photogrammetry, Accuracy and Error Analysis.




I.                Photogrammetry
1.         Introduction: Historical evolution of photogrammetry with an emphasis on the last 10 years
2.         Photogrammetric project planning (photo scale selection, camera types, accuracy in planimetry and height, model area, ground control, auxiliary data)
3.         The image-object relation as the basis of analytical solutions in photogrammetry
4.         The metric camera (lens distortion, calibrated focal length, data of Interior Orientation)
5.         Basic orientation procedures
6.         Exterior Orientation of a single image
7.         Relative and absolute orientation of photo pairs
8.         Aerial triangulation of image blocks, block adjustment
9.         Photogrammetric procedures for DEM and GIS data acquisition
10.     Orthophotos and ortho mosaicing: basics, geometric radiometric adjustment, typical end product
11.     Error Analysis
II.              Digital Photogrammetry
1.         Feature extraction, points, lines and regions
1.1         Interest operators for extracting prominent points,
1.2         Detection, localization, and classification
2.         Image matching
2.1         Area based matching, feature based matching, relational matching
2.2         Search processes, image pyramids and scale space,
2.3         Coarse-to-fine processing, robust estimation in matching
3.         Automated aerial triangulation
3.1         Concepts, solutions, analysis
3.2         Automatic DTM acquisition
3.3         Solutions, limitations, quality checks, interactive control
3.4         Orthophotos, Mosaicing, Colour balancing
III.           Photogrammetric Lab Work (through LPS).
1.         Photogrammetric data processing, key modules and their relations, application areas.
2.         Digital automatic aerial triangulation: preparation, digital image matching procedures, GPS/INS data, analysis.
3.         Digital Photogrammetric Stereo Workstation: hardware, viewing system, measurement system, feature extraction: vector information, breaklines for automatic digital terrain model extraction.
4.         Automatic generation of terrain models: image matching procedures, analysis
5.         Semi-automatic building extraction: matching procedures, measurement of simple and complex building structures, typical end product
6.         Orthophoto production and ortho mosaicing: handling of image blocks, geometric radio-metric adjustment and tools, examining typical problems in different data sets


Lecture Notes


  • ISPRS Journal website
  • Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ASPRS)
  • International Journal of ISPRS (ISPRS)
  • The Journal of Survey (JAS)


The final grade will be computed according to the following weight distribution: 
Midterm 50%
Final 40%  
Lab 10%